<div dir="ltr"><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif">Dear colleagues,</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"> </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif">We would like to draw your attention to the following session being organized by the Seismology section at the upcoming 2020 AGU Fall meeting:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"> </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;color:rgb(38,38,38);border:1pt none windowtext;padding:0cm">S014</span></b><b><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;color:rgb(38,38,38)"> - How do earthquakes start?</span></b><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"> </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif">Session Description:</span></b><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;color:rgb(38,38,38)">While a number of physical processes and properties, such as fault frictional/structural heterogeneity, the presence of fluids, thermal effects, aseismic deformation, as well as static and dynamic stress changes, have been proposed to play a role in the nucleation and triggering of earthquakes, their relative significance and relevant spatial and temporal scales remain uncertain. We welcome experimental, theoretical and observational studies that explore and provide constraints on the mechanisms and conditions that are critical for understanding how ruptures begin, including but not limited to the following questions: (1) To what degree and at what spatio-temporal scales does heterogeneity impact nucleation? (2) Under what conditions do fluids induce unstable slip? (3) What role do static/dynamic stress changes play in promoting seismicity? (4) What is the relationship between aseismic deformation and earthquake nucleation? (5) Why do some ruptures accelerate and become large dynamic events while others remain small or aseismic?</span><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"> </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;font-size:12pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;color:black">Conveners:</span><span style="font-family:"Times New Roman",serif"></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin:0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-orig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